These definitions were obtained from many sources. Please let us know if any additions or edits need to be made.
Abandoned Line or Facility – Any underground or submerged line or facility no longer in use.
Action Level – The level of a contaminant which, if exceeded, requires treatment or other action that a water system must follow.
Acute Contaminant – A harmful substance that has a rapid effect on humans and/or animals.
ADR – Alternative Dispute Resolution
Aesthetic Qualities – The taste, odor and appearance of drinking water.
Agreed Order (AO) – Specifies steps a violator must take to comply with the law. Such steps may include fines for past violations or penalties for failure to complete future compliance steps.
Air Gap – Backflow prevention control device — Air gap 2 times pipe diameter – 1ä minimum — Best protection available. The unobstructed vertical distance between the discharge end of a pipeline supplied from a public water supply and the overflow rim of the receiving portion of the customer’s water system.
Alkalinity – The capacity of water to neutralize acids; that is, the measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) – Any process or procedure other than litigation that is agreed to by the disputing parties as the means for resolving the dispute, and is binding or non-binding pursuant to the agreement by the disputing parties. ADR includes, but is not limited to, advisory boards, arbitration, mini-trials, mediation, partnering, and standing neutrals.
American Water Works Association (AWWA) – The American Water Works Association (AWWA) is the world’s largest educational and scientific organization dedicated to the promotion of safe drinking water. The Indiana Section of AWWA is dedicated to the education of the public on the importance of safe and adequate water and to keeping its members up-to-date on requirements, regulations and technology in the industry. www.inawwa.org or www.awwa.org
AMI/AMR – Advanced Metering Infrastructure/ Automated Meter Reading
AMWA – Association of Metro Water Agencies
Anthracite – A dense, shiny coal that has high carbon content and little volatile matter and is often used on top of sand water treatment filters for iron removal.
AO – Agreed Order
APD – Alternative Project Delivery
APQC – American Productivity and Quality Center
Aquifer – The saturated underground formation that will yield usable amounts of water to a well or spring. The formation could be sand, gravel, limestone or sandstone. The water in an aquifer is called groundwater.
- Confined aquifer is the saturated formation between low permeability layers that restrict movement of water vertically into or out of the saturated formation. Water is confined under pressure similar to water in a pipeline. In some areas confined aquifers produce water without pumps (flowing artesian well).
- Unconfined aquifer (water table aquifer) is the saturated formation in which the upper surface fluctuates with addition or subtraction of water. The upper surface of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table. Water, contained in an unconfined aquifer, is free to move laterally in response to differences in the water table elevations.
Arsenic – A poisonous metallic element that comes from erosion of natural deposits, found primarily in rocks, soil, water, and plants. Also comes from runoff of glass and electronics production wastes. Arsenic exposure has been linked to skin damage, circulatory system problems, and an increased risk of cancer.
Arsenic Rule – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has issued a rule that applies to all community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems, which sets the maximum contaminant level of arsenic at 10 milligrams per liter.
As-Built Drawings – Maps or drawings depicting details of the actual installation of pipes, facilities, and equipment as installed in the field. Also called record drawings. As-builts often differ from original plans.
As-Built Maps – Maps or drawings depicting details of the actual installation of pipes, facilities, and equipment as installed in the field. Also called record drawings. As-builts often differ from original plans.
Asbestos – Inorganic contaminant from old insulation, the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and the erosion of natural deposits. Potential health effects include increased risk of lung tumors and intestinal polyps.
ASDWA – Association of State Drinking Water Administrators
ASP – Association for Strategic Planning
Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker (AVB) – Backflow prevention control device – Backsiphonage
Attribute – Characteristic that helps describe the data.
AVB – Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker
AWWA – American Water Works Association
AWWARF – American Water Works Association Research Foundation
AWWSCo – American Water Works Service Company
Backfill – To refill an excavated area with removed earth; or the material itself that is used to refill an excavated area.
Backflow – Backflow is an unwanted reversal of flow. The flow of water or contaminants into the public water supply distribution system from a source other than the public water supply. Two acts are necessary for backflow to occur. (1) There must be a link between potable water and another source. This physical arrangement is called a cross connection; and (2) There must also be a pressure difference between the two sources. As water follows the path of least resistance, it will always flow from a higher to a lower pressure. Therefore, a decrease in system pressure or an increase in pressure from the customer side could cause backflow.
Backflow prevention – The best defense for backflow is a proactive backflow prevention program requiring backflow preventers in areas where backflow can occur.
Backflow prevention device – Installed at the water meter, will reduce water pressure and will change the hydraulics of the customer’s water system.
Backpressure Backflow – Downstream pressure increases, or Upstream pressure drops.
Backsiphonage Backflow – Negative (vacuum or partial vacuum) pressure.
Backwash – The up flow or counter-current flow of water through a filter or ion-exchange medium, lifting the mineral bed and flushing away to the drain the particles of foreign matter that have been filtered from the water supply during the filter cycle.
Bacteria – Single-cell microorganisms that typically reproduce by cell division. Although usually classed as plants, bacteria contain no chlorophyll. Many different types of bacterial organisms are often found in drinking water. Most municipally treated water is generally free of bacteria due to the addition of chlorine. Some forms of cyst type viruses have a degree of immunity to chlorine due to the cocoon-like shell around the virus. These types of organisms such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia Cyst and Giardia Lamblia, and have a physical size of three to seven microns and can be effectively removed by sub-micron filtration. Some bacteria are helpful to humans, others harmful.
BART – Biological activity reactions test
Beta particles and photon emitters – A radionuclide from the decay of natural and manmade deposits. Can cause an increased risk of cancer.
BI – Business Intelligence
Biological activity reactions tests (BART) – Gives an indication or biological fouling, including iron bacteria, slime forming bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria.
BMPs – Best Management Practices
Boil Order (Advisory) – A directive issued to water system users to boil their water because of known or suspected bacteriological contamination.
Booster pump – A pump installed on a pipeline to increase water pressure or flow.
Bromate – A byproduct of drinking water disinfection. Can cause an increased risk of cancer.
Business Day – Any day of the week, except Saturday, Sunday, and state/provincial and federal legal holidays.
Ca – Calcium
CAA – Clean Air Duct
Capacity Development – The process of in which public water systems acquire and maintain the adequate technical, managerial, and financial capabilities to enable them to consistently provide safe drinking water.
Ca(OH)2 – Slake Lime
Capture zone – The area overlying an aquifer within which groundwater will be drawn to a pumping well within a specified period of time.
Cathodic Protection – The process of arresting corrosion on a buried or submerged structure by electrically reversing the natural chemical reaction. This includes, but is not limited to, installation of a sacrificial anode bed, use of a rectifier based system, or any combination of these or other similar systems. Wiring is installed between the buried or submerged structure and all anodes and rectifiers; wiring is also installed to test stations which are used to measure the effectiveness of the cathodic protection system.
Cation – A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced cat-eye-on) due to its attraction to cathodes.
CCR – Consumer Confidence Report (eCCR= Electronic consumer confidence report)
CDBG – Community Development Block Grant
CDC – Center for Disease Control and Prevention
CERCLA – Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CFR – Code of Federal Regulation
CGA – Common Ground Alliance
Chain of Custody – A written record that shows who handled a sample over what periods of time from the beginning to the end of the sampling and testing process.
Check valve – The check valve in a backflow preventor will close the system.
Chloramines (as CI2) – Used for disinfection. Comes from a water additive used to control microbes. Can potentially cause eye/nose irritation, stomach discomfort, and anemia.
Chlorine (as Cl2) – Used for disinfection. Comes from a water additive used to control microbes. Can potentially cause eye/nose irritation and stomach discomfort.
Chlorine dioxide (as CIO2) – Comes from a water additive used to control microbes. Can potentially cause anemia and affect the nervous system of infants and young children.
Chlorine Residual – Lingering chlorine in the water distribution system to kill any other bacteria that might enter the distribution system later.
Cl2 – Chlorine
CIP – Capital Improvement Plan
CIS – Customer Information System
Clean Water Act – The objective of the Clean Water Act is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. It is the policy of Congress to recognize the primary responsibilities and rights of States to prevent, reduce and eliminate pollution. Congress also intends that the States manage the wastewater treatment works construction grants program and implement the discharge permit programs under the Act. The federal government will support research and provide technical services and financial aid to state and interstate agencies and municipalities. Congress emphasized that the authority of each State to allocate quantities of water within its jurisdiction are not superseded, abrogated or otherwise impaired by the Act.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, popularly known as the Clean Water Act, is a comprehensive statute aimed at restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Enacted originally in 1948, the Act was amended numerous times until it was reorganized and expanded in 1972. It continues to be amended almost every year.
Primary authority for the implementation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act now rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition to the measures authorized before 1972, the Act authorizes water quality programs, requires federal effluent limitations and state water quality standards, requires permits for the discharge of pollutants into navigable waters, provides enforcement mechanisms, and authorizes funding for wastewater treatment works construction grants and state revolving loan programs, as well as funding to states and tribes for their water quality programs. Provisions have also been added to address water quality problems in specific regions and specific waterways.
Clearwells – Water storage structures usually located at the end of a treatment train or well system. Typically used for contact time when chemical treatment additives are used.
CMMS/EAM – Computerized Maintenance Management System/Enterprise Asset Management
CMOM – Capacity Management, Operations, and Maintenance – primarily related to stormwater. The CMOM Rule was adopted on January 5, 2001. This rule is directly regulated under the Clean Water Act. This rule affects all sanitary collection systems (19,000 in US) and all municipal satellite systems (4,800 in US). CMOM, which stands for Capacity Assurance, Management, Operation, and Maintenance Programs, is a Rule that affects each system’s NPDES permit. The CMOM programs help communities ensure they have adequate wastewater collection and treatment capacity and incorporate many standard operation and maintenance activities for good system performance.
CO – Commissioner’s Order
Coagulant – A material such as alum that will form a gelatinous precipitate in water, and gather finely divided particles into larger ones, which can then be removed by settling and/or filtration.
Coagulation – Rapid mixing of coagulants with water to cause very small particles to join together (floc).
Coliform – Coliforms are bacteria and are naturally present in the environment. Fecal Coliforms and E. coli come from human and animal fecal waste. Total Coliform are used as in indicator that other potential harmful bacteria may be present.
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) – In periods of rainfall or snowmelt, total wastewater flows can exceed the capacity of a Combined Sewer System and/or treatment facilities. When this occurs, the CSS is designed to overflow directly to surface water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, estuaries, or coastal waters. These overflows – called Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) – can be a major source of water pollution in communities served by CSSs.
Combined Sewer System (CSS) – Combined sewer systems are wastewater collection systems designed to carry sanitary sewage (consisting of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastewater) and storm water (surface drainage from rainfall or snowmelt) in a single pipe to a treatment facility.
Commissioner’s Order (CO) – If a public water system in violation cannot settle on an Agreed Order, then IDEM will issue a CO. This requires specific action to correct a violation or pay a fine.
Common Ground Alliance – The Common Ground Alliance (CGA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of shared responsibility and implementation of the ãbest practicesä in damage prevention. For additional information visit the CGA website at www.commongroundalliance.com
Community Water System (CWS) – A public water system that has:
- ≥15 residential service connections or
- ≥ 25 year-round residents served
Compliance – Adherence to the statute and its regulations.
Compound meters – These meters are used where there is a need to measure both high and low flows, like in a hotel, school, or a commercial account where both domestic use and production use need to be measured by one meter. They are typically available in sizes from 2″ through 6″.
Cone of depression – A depression in groundwater levels around a well in response to groundwater withdrawal or pumping water.
Confined aquifer – An aquifer that is overlain by a confining bed. The confining bed has a significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than the aquifer. The saturated formation between low permeability layers that restrict movement of water vertically into or out of the saturated formation. Water is confined under pressure similar to water in a pipeline. In some areas, confined aquifers produce water without pumps (flowing artesian well).
Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) – An annual water quality report distributed to a community water system’s customers. A certified copy is also to be sent to IDEM. All community water systems are required to deliver to their customers an annual report. This report must contain information on the quality of the water delivered by the system and characterize the risks, if any, from exposure to contaminants detected in the drinking water in an accurate and understandable manner. Systems shall deliver their reports no later than July 1 annually. Each report must contain data collected during, or prior to, the previous calendar year. A community water system that sells water to another community water system shall deliver the applicable information noted above to the buyer system no later than April 1 annually.
Contaminants – Adversely affect public health and occur in drinking water with a frequency and at levels that pose a threat to public health. U.S. EPA has set standards for 90 contaminants, seven of which are new standards that became enforceable on January 1, 2002.
Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) – A plan devised to keep your utility operational during a pandemic or other staffing crises.
COOP – Continuity of Operations Plan
Copper – Drinking water corrodes copper-containing plumbing materials, such as pipes and valves. Copper is an essential nutrient in low concentrations that is metabolized by the body. Copper can cause short-term health effects such as stomach and intestinal distress and long-term health effects such as liver and kidney damage, and anemia. Persons with Wilson’s Disease may be more sensitive than others to the effects of copper contamination and should consult their personal doctor if their water system exceeds the copper action level.
CPM – Capital Program Management
Cross Connection – The link between potable water and another source. This physical arrangement is called a cross connection. A cross connection is any actual or potential connection between a public water supply and a source of contamination or pollution. Examples include:
- Cooling water tanks
- Lawn irrigation systems
- Fire suppression systems
- Mop sinks
Any physical arrangement, including cross connection control devices not in working order, whereby a public water supply distribution system is directly connected, either continuously or intermittently, with any secondary source of supply, sewer, drain, conduit, pool, piping, storage reservoir, plumbing fixture, or other device which contains, or may contain, and is capable of imparting to the public water supply, contaminants, contaminated water, sewage, or other waste or liquid of unknown or unsafe quality.
Cross connection control device – Any device or assembly, approved by the Commissioner for construction on or installation in water supply piping, which is capable of preventing contaminants from entering the public water supply distribution system.
Cross connection control device inspector – A person who has: (1) Successfully completed training in testing and inspection of cross connection control devices from a training provider approved by the Commissioner; (2) Received a registration number from the Commissioner; and (3) Not been notified by the Commissioner that the registration number has been revoked.
Cross connection hazard – Any customer facility which, because of the nature and extent of activities on the premises, or the materials used in connection with the activities or stored on the premises, would present an immediate or potential danger or health hazard to customers of the public water supply should backflow occur.
Cryptosporidium – A microorganism found in human and animal fecal waste. Can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
CSO – Combined Sewer Overflow
CSR – Customer Service Representative
CSS – Combined Sewer Systems
CT – The Residual Concentration of Disinfectant (mg/L) multiplied by the Contact Time (in minutes)
CUPSS – Check Up Program for Small Systems
Customer service line – The pipeline from the public water supply to the: (1) First tap, fixture, receptacle, or other point of customer water use; or (2) Secondary source of supply or pipeline branch in a building.
Customer water system – All piping, fixtures, and appurtenances, including secondary sources of supply, used by a customer to convey water on his premises.
CWA – Clean Water Act
CWS – Community Water System
CWSRF – Clean Water State Revolving Fund
CWSS – Community Water System Survey
Damage To Underground Facilities Act (DUFA) – The Damage to Underground Facilities Act (“DUFA”) provides for both civil penalties and a cause of action against any party who damages underground utility facilities during excavation.
Day Tank – A tank the water operator fills with a chemical mixture that is fed into the water system over a period of time.
DBPR – Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule
DBPs – Disinfection Byproducts
DC – Double Check Valve Assembly
DCS – Distributed Control System
DHS – Department of Homeland Security
Digital Mapping Data – Geospatial data that is in a format that the computer can recognize.
Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 – Legislation that has reinforced the importance of mitigation planning and emphasizes planning for disasters before they occur.
Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule (DBPR) – The purpose of this rule is to reduce public exposure to three chemical disinfectants (chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide) and many disinfection by-products (total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorite, and bromate).
Disinfectant residual – Lingering disinfectant in the water distribution system to kill any other bacteria that might enter the distribution system later.
Displacement meters – These are used for measurement of low and intermediate flows, like domestic use applications. They are typically available in sizes from 5/8ä through 2ä.
Distribution System Small (DSS) – Includes water systems that:
- Serve a population of less than three thousand three hundred one (3,301); and
- Have no components other than:
- Pressure tanks; or
- Storage tanks
Distribution System Medium (DSM) – Includes water systems that meet one (1) of the following:
- Serve a population greater than or equal to three thousand three hundred one (3,301) but less than or equal to ten thousand (10,000) people; and have no mechanical means of movement of water other than one (1) of the following:
- Pressure tanks
- Pressure tanks
- Consist of the following:
Booster pumps to storage tanks
Distribution System Large (DSL) – Includes water systems that meet one (1) of the following:
- Serve a population greater than or equal to ten thousand one (10,001) people, or more
- Consist of the following:
- Storage tanks
Booster pumps to the distribution system
Mechanical devices for movement of water beyond storage
- Storage tanks
DMA 2000 – Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000
DMR – Discharge Monitoring Report
DO – Dissolved Oxygen
Double Check Valve Assembly (DC) – Backflow prevention control device – For non-health endangering substances. This device or assembly is composed of two tightly closing shut-off valves surrounding two independently acting check valves, with four test cocks, one upstream of the four valves, and one between each of the four check and shut-off valves.
Downstream – The direction of flow when only the public water supply is supplying water through the customer water system and backflow is not occurring.
Drainage basin – Area of land surface, which slopes down and receives water from rivulets, books, creeks, and streams.
Drawdown – The lowering of the groundwater surface caused by withdrawal or pumping of water from a well. It is the difference between the static water level and the pumping water level in a well pumped at a constant flow rate.
Drinking Water Branch (DWB) – A branch of IDEM’s Office of Water Quality that is responsible for community and noncommunity systems:
- Capacity Development
- Field Inspection
- Ground Water
The DWB assists public water supply owners and operators to promote compliance with the drinking water regulations. Assistance is provided through:
- Site visits
- Telephone contact
- Educational presentations and materials
- Small system laboratory assistance program
Drinking Water Standards – Drinking water standards apply to all public water systems, which provide water to at least 15 connections or 25 persons at least 60 days out of the year.
DSS – Distribution System Small
DSM – Distribution System Medium
DSL – Distribution System Large
DUFA – Damage to Underground Facilities Act
DWB – Drinking Water Branch of the Office of Water Quality at IDEM.
DWCAP – Indiana’s Drinking Water Compliance Assistance Program
DWSRF – Drinking Water State Revolving Fund
E. coli – Fecal Coliforms and E. coli microorganisms come from human and animal fecal waste. Can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
Easement – An interest in land owned by another person, consisting of the right to use or control the land, or an area above or below it, for a specific limited purpose (such as to cross it for access to a public road). (per Black’s Law Dictionary)
Effective grain size – The grain size corresponding to the one that is ten percent (10%) finer by weight line on the grain-size distribution curve.
ELTF – Excess Liability Trust Fund
EMA – Emergency Management Agency
Emergency Orders –IDEM enforcement tool which calls for immediate action to stop activities that threaten human or environmental health. This is a temporary order that expires 90 days from its issuance.
Environmental Restrictive Covenant – Legal document that lists restrictions and conditions that must be met and complied with by the property owner in lieu of removal of contamination. ERCs “run with the land” — they are binding on successor owners. ERCs are signed by the property owner and recorded at the County Recorder’s Office — it becomes part of the title record.
Environmental Restrictive Ordinance – Local ordinance that limits, regulates, or prohibits withdrawal, human consumption, or any other use of ground water. Requires local authorities to notify IDEM if they are amending or revising an environmental ordinance.
EPA (or US EPA) – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
ERC – Environmental Restrictive Covenant
EPCRA – Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act
ERO – Environmental Restrictive Ordinance
ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning
Eskers – A sinuous ridge of roughly stratified gravel and sand that was deposited by a stream flowing in or beneath the ice of a stagnant or retreating glacier and was left behind when the ice melted.
ETA – Employment and Training Administration
EUM – Effective Utility Management
FAQ – Frequently Asked Question
FBRR – Filter Backwash Recycle Rule
FCC – Federal Communications Commission
Fe – Iron
Feasible – As defined in the Safe Drinking Water Act – The level that my be achieved with the use of the best technology, treatment techniques, and other means which U.S. EPA finds (after examination for efficiency under field conditions) are viable, taking cost into consideration.
Fecal Coliforms – Fecal Coliforms and E. coli microorganisms come from human and animal fecal waste. Can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
FEMA – Federal Emergency Management Agency
FERC – Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FIFRA – Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Filter Backwash Recycle Rule (FBRR) – The purpose of this rule is to require system to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the State to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control. This FBRR applies to all public water systems that (1) use surface or ground water under the direct influence of surface water; (2) utilize direct or conventional filtration processes; and (3) recycle spent filter backwash water, sludge thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes.
Financial Capacity – A water system’s ability to acquire and manage sufficient financial resources to allow the system to achieve and maintain compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requirements – Revenue sufficiency, Credit worthiness, Fiscal management and controls.
Finished Water – Water treated in a manner that it is suitable for human consumption.
Fire service meter – These meters are used to measure water from fire lines. There are several types of fire line meters. Some measure all of the water going through the fire line in the event of a fire – these are typically large turbo meters. Some only measure a portion of the water going through the fire line — this is called proportional metering. Some only measure low flows of water used when there isn’t a fire – these are called detector meters. There are also fire meters available that can measure both low flow domestic use and high flow fire fighting use. These are really large, parallel type compounds. They consist of a large turbo meter, a change over valve, and a 1-1/2ä or 2ä displacement or turbo meter to measure the domestic use.
FIS – Financial Information System
Fixed-radius Wellhead Protection Plan – A 3,000 foot radius Wellhead Protection Area delineation that may be used by qualifying water systems that pump less than 100,000 gallons of water per day.
Flocculation – Slow mixing after coagulation. Allows light floc to rise to top — Heavy floc settles to bottom.
Fluoride – Naturally-occurring element found to be beneficial in reducing tooth decay. Inorganic contaminant which comes from a water additive that is used to promote strong teeth, erosion of natural deposits, and discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories. Too much fluoride can cause dental fluorosis (staining) and skeletal fluorosis (bone damage).
Flush – To run large quantities of water through an item (e.g., water main).
ft – feet
GAC – granular activated carbon
GAO – United States Government Accountability Office
Geographic Information System (GIS) – An organized collection of computer hardware, software, and geographic data used to capture, store, update, maintain, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information.
Geospatial Data – Data that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the earth.
GETS – Government Emergency Telecommunications Service
Giardia lamblia – A microorganism found in human and animal fecal waste. Can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
GIS – Geographic Information System
Global Positioning System (GPS) – A system consisting of 25 satellites used to provide precise position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere on earth. Location information can be received using a GSP receiver. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the earth’s surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Simple and inexpensive hand-held receivers provide an accuracy of +/- 100 meters of a true position. More sophisticated receivers that use additional technologies or post process the original GPS data can provide sub-meter accuracy.
gpg – Grains Per Gallon
GPS – Global Positioning System
Grade – The surface of the earth (i.e. ground level) upon which a structure is built or prepared.
Grandparented Water Operator – A grandparented operator is an employee of a water system that was not required to have a certified operator prior to the adoption of the certification rule (August 9, 2000) and who has been issued, by IDEM, an operator’s certification appropriate for the class of system operated by the employee. A grandparented operator may not use his/her certification to work at any other system. The grandparented certification becomes invalid if the water system changes significantly and requires greater technical expertise to operate.
Granular activated carbon (GAC) – Media often placed on top of filter to help remove taste and odor from the water.
Ground Water – Ground water is the water found in an aquifer.
Ground Water Rule (GWR) – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency rule to protect public health from waterborne microorganisms present in ground water sources (i.e., sources unaffected by surface water). The GWR specifies the appropriate use of disinfection in ground water and establishes a strategy to identify ground water systems at high risk for contamination.
Ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI) – As defined in the Safe Drinking Water Act: Any water beneath the surface of the ground with:
- Significant occurrence of insects or other macroorganisms, algae or large-diameter pathogens such as Giardia lamblia, or
- Significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH which closely correlate to climatological or surface water conditions.
Grounding Systems – A system of one or more ground conductors or ground rods providing a low resistance path to earth ground potential through a mechanical connection to structures, conductors, and equipment.
GWR – Ground Water Rule
GWS – Ground Water System
GWUDI – Ground Water Under the Direct Influence (of Surface Water)
H2SiF6 – Hydrofluosilicic acid
HAP – Hazardous Air Pollutant
Haz-Mat Team – Hazardous Materials Team
HEA – House Enrolled Act
HMI – Human-Machine Interface
Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) – Measures a range of bacteria that are naturally present in the environment. HPC has no health effects, but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms.
HPC – Heterotrophic Plate Count
HSE – Health, Safety, and Environment
Hydrant diffuser – Dissipates the force of flowing water.
Hydraulic conductivity – A variable that describes the rate at which water can move through a permeable medium.
Hydraulic gradient – The change in total head with change in distance in a given direction. The direction is that which yields a maximum rate of decrease in head.
Hydrogeologic barrier – Consists of physical, chemical, and biological factors that, singularly or in combination, prevent the movement of viable pathogens from a contaminant source to a public water supply well.
Hydrogeologic Sensitivity Assessment – Is designed to identify wells that may be sensitive to fecal contamination. Sensitive hydrogeologic settings are aquifers that allow ground water to travel at high velocities.
Hydrogeology – The study of the interrelationships of geological materials and process with water, especially ground water.
Hydrologic cycle – Describes the constant movement of water above, on, and below the earth’s surface. Processes such as precipitation, evaporation, condensation, infiltration and runoff comprise the cycle. Within the cycle, water changes form in response to the Earth’s climatic conditions.
IAC – Indiana Administrative Code
IC – Indiana Code – Indiana statutes (laws).
ICS – Incident Command System
ICS-CERT – Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team
IDEM – Indiana Department of Environmental Management
IDEM, DWB – Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Drinking Water Branch
IDEM, OE – Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Office of Enforcement
IDEM, OWQ — Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Office of Water Quality
IDSE – Initial distribution system evaluation
IESWTR – Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
I/I – Infiltration and Inflow
Indiana Administrative Code (IAC) – Indiana regulations.
Indiana Code (IC) – Indiana statutes (laws).
Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) – Implements federal and state regulations regarding the environment. Through compliance assistance, incentive programs and educational outreach, the agency encourages and aids businesses and citizens in protecting and improving Indiana’s environment. IDEM pursues enforcement action when a party disregards safety and endangers human health. www.IDEM.in.gov
Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Drinking Water Branch (IDEM, DWB) – A branch of IDEM’s Office of Water Quality that is responsible for community and noncommunity systems:
- Capacity Development
- Field Inspection
- Ground Water
The DWB assists public water supply owners and operators to promote compliance with the drinking water regulations. Assistance is provided through:
- Site visits
- Telephone contact
- Educational presentations and materials
- Small system laboratory assistance program
Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Office of Enforcement (IDEM, OE) – Office with regulatory enforcement over Indiana’s public water systems. Aims to help ensure that safe drinking water is provided by responding to violations with timely, quality enforcement actions that accomplish three goals: Achieve compliance, Deter future violations, and Result in an improved environment.
Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Office of Water Quality (IDEM, OWQ) – Once a water quality violation is noted, this department evaluates the nature of the violation. If the violation is not serious, this department works with the violator to correct the problem. If the violation is deemed to be serious in nature or remains uncorrected, it is referred to the Office of Enforcement.
Indiana Rural Water Association (IRWA) – Founded in 1968, IRWA is a member supported organization which provides education and technical assistance to water and wastewater operators, utility boards, clerks, elected officials, and others in Indiana. ãLook for the Windmill!!ä www.indianaruralwater.org
Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) – The IURC’s mission is to assure that utilities and others use adequate planning and resources for the provision of safe and reliable utility services at reasonable cost. Formerly known at the Public Service Commission, the IURC has regulatory responsibility over water, private sewer, natural gas, electric, and telephone services. www.in.gov/iruc
The IURC regulates water and sewer utilities, electric, natural gas, telecommunications, and steam. These utilities may be investor-owned, municipal, not-for-profit, or cooperative utilities; or they might operate as water conservancy districts. The IURC does not regulate municipal sewer utilities.
Indiana Statues allow municipal utilities, not-for-profit corporations, co-operative telephone and electric companies to remove themselves from the Commission’s jurisdiction by ordinance of the local governing body or a majority vote of the people in the municipality.
Indiana Water Environment Association (IWEA) – A not-for-profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work toward the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of the global water environment. www.indianawea.org
Indiana Water Pollution Control Association (IWPCA) – Now called Indiana Water Environment Association (IWEA)
Initial distribution system evaluation (IDSE) – Sampling process used to determine DBP sampling sites under stage 2 DPB Rule.
Inline Filtration – Designed for Iron, Manganese and Hydrogen Sulfide removal.
Inorganic Chemicals (IOCs) – Naturally occurring contaminants.
IOCs – Inorganic Chemicals
IoE – Internet of Everything
Ion – An ion is an atom or molecule that has a positive or negative electrical charge.
IoT – Internet of Things
IRWA – Indiana Rural Water Association
ISDE – Initial Distribution System Evaluation
Isolation area – Isolation areas are also known as sanitary setbacks. Requirement are:
- 200 foot radius without automatic disinfection
- 100 foot radius with automatic disinfection
IT – Information Technology
IURC – Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission
IWA – International Water Association
IWEA – Indiana Water Environment Association
IWPCA – Indiana Water Pollution Control Association
Judicial Order – IDEM enforcement tool which is issued by a court of record, such as a Superior Court or Circuit Court.
Kame – A mound, knob, or short irregular ridge, composed of stratified sand and gravel deposited by a subglacial stream as a fan or delta at the margin of a melting glacier; by a stream in a low place or hole on the surface of the glacier, or as a ponded deposit on the surface or at the margin of stagnant ice.
Karst – A type of topography that is formed over limestone, dolomite, or gypsum by dissolution, and that is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground.
KM – Knowledge Management
Land Base – Mapped data that depicts features of the surface of the earth and is tied to real-world geographic coordinates, such as latitude and longitude.
LAPC – Local Area Planning Commission
Latitude (Lat) – Distance measured north or south of the equator.
lbs – pounds
Lead – An inorganic contaminant from corrosion of household plumbing systems and erosion of natural deposits. Drinking water corrodes lead-containing plumbing materials, such as faucets and solder. Short-term health effects include: interference with red blood cell chemistry, delays in or abnormal physical and mental development in babies and young children, deficits in attention span, hearing, and learning abilities of children, and slight increases in the blood pressure of some adults. Long-term exposure can cause stroke, kidney disease, and cancer.
Legionella – A microorganism found naturally in water that multiplies in heating systems. Can potentially cause Legionnaireâs Disease.
LIMS – Laboratory Information Management System
LIS – Laboratory Information System
Local Unit of Government – Any county or municipality having the ability to promulgate ordinances including those having enforceable penalties related to water use.
Locate – To indicate the existence of a line or facility by establishing a mark through the use of stakes, paint, or some other customary manner, that approximately determines the location of a line or facility.
Locate Request – A communication between an excavator and one-call center personnel in which a request for locating underground facilities is processed.
LOS – Levels of Service
Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1-ESWTR) – The purpose of this rule is to improve small systemsâ control of microbial pathogens in drinking water, particularly for the protozoan Cryptosporidium. In addition, the rule includes provisions to assure continued levels of microbial protection while utilities take the necessary steps to comply with new disinfection by-product standards. This rule became final in July, 2001. Systems serving 500 to 9,999 people must comply with disinfection profiling requirements by January 2003. Those serving 25 to 499 people must comply by July 2003. Transient, noncommunity systems are exempt from disinfection profiling.
Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2-ESWTR) – The purpose of this rule is to (1) improve control of microbial pathogens, particularly Cryptosporidium, and (2) address risk trade-offs with disinfection by-products.
Long Term Control Plan (LTCP) – Plan developed by utilities for controlling Combined Sewer Overflows. The nine elements of the LTCP are:
- Characterization, monitoring, and modeling activities as the basis for selection and design of effective CSO controls.
- A public participation process that actively involves the affected public in the decision-making to select long-term CSO controls.
- Consideration of sensitive areas as the highest priority for controlling overflows.
- Evaluation of alternatives that will enable the permittee, in consultation with the NPDES permitting authority, WQS authority, and the public, to select CSO controls that will meet CWA requirements.
- Cost/performance considerations to demonstrate the relationships among a comprehensive set of reasonable control alternatives.
- Operational plan revisions to include agreed-upon long-term CSO controls.
- Maximization of treatment at the existing POTW treatment plant for wet weather flows.
- An implementation schedule for CSO controls.
- A post-construction compliance monitoring program adequate to verify compliance with water quality-based CWA requirements and ascertain the effectiveness of CSO controls.
Longitude (Long) – Distance measured east or west from a reference meridian (Greenwich).
LT1-ESWTR – Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
LT2-ESWTR – Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
LTCP – Long Term Control Plan
LUST – Leaking Underground Storage Tanks Program
m – Meters
Managerial Capacity – The ability of a water system to conduct its affairs in a manner that enables the system to achieve and maintain compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requirements – Accountability of ownership, Staffing and organization, Interaction with external customers, regulators, etc.
Mandatory Conservation – Compliance with a local unit of government’s imposition of requirements that are designed to reduce certain kinds and types of water use.
Marking Standards – The methods by which a facility owner/operator indicates its lines or facility in accordance with the APWA guidelines.
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) – An MCL is the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to maximum contaminant level goals as feasible, using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards.
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) – The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. Maximum contaminant level goals allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals.
Maximum Residual Disinfection Level (MRDL) – The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that the addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG) – The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.
MCL – Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG – Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
Meter maintenance program – Scheduled program whereby meters are tested and repaired before there is a noticeable drop in consumption.
Mg – Magnesium
mgd – Million Gallons Per Day
mg/l – milligrams per liter – Equivalent to parts per million.
MHMP – Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan
ml – Milliliters
Mn – Manganese
Model calibration – The process by which the independent variables of a computer model are varied in order to calibrate a dependent variable such as a head against a know value such as a water table map.
Model verification – The process by which a computer model that has been calibrated against a steady-state condition is tested to see if it can generate a transient response, such as the decline in the water table with pumping that matches the known history of the aquifer.
Monthly Report of Operations (MRO) – Required by IDEM of all community public water supplies that add chemicals.
Moraine – A mound or ridge of unstratified glacial drift, chiefly till, deposited by direct action of glacier ice.
MRDL – Maximum Residual Disinfection Level
MRDLG – Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal
MRO – Monthly Report of Operations for water systems.
MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheets
Multi-jet meters – These are used for measurement of low and intermediate flows, like domestic use applications. They are typically available in sizes from 5/8ä through 2ä.
Municipally-owned water system – A municipally owned water system is a public water system that is owned and operated by a local government or urban political unit with corporate status. Normally the mayor or water board is the policy making body.
Murphy’s Law – “If anything can go wrong, it will.”
Na2CO3 – Soda Ash
Na2SiF6 – Sodium Silicofluroide
NAAQS – National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NACWA – National Association of Clean Water Analysis
NaF – Sodium Flouride
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) – The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States.
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR or primary standards) – These are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water.
National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWR or secondary standards) – These are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. U.S. EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems, but does not require systems to comply. However, states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.
NCEES – National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
NCWS – Noncommunity Water System
NDWAC – National Drinking Water Advisory Council
Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) – A measurement of turbidity.
NF – Nanofiltration
NFIP – National Flood Insurance Program
NIMBY – “Not In My Back Yard”
NIMS – National Incident Management System
NIST – National Incident of Standards and Technology
Nitrate (measured as nitrogen) – Inorganic contaminant from runoff from fertilizer use, leaching from septic tanks and sewage systems, and erosion of natural deposits. Converts to Nitrite that can cause Methemoglobinemia.
Nitrite (measured as nitrogen) – Inorganic contaminant from runoff from fertilizer use, leaching from septic tanks and sewage systems, and erosion of natural deposits. Can cause Methemoglobinemia (“blue baby syndrome”) in infants less than 6 months in age. This is life threatening without immediate medical attention. Symptoms: infant looks blue and has shortness of breath.
Noncommunity Water System (NCWS) – A public water system that serves the public, but does not serve the same people year-round and has:
- ≥15 non-residential service connections, or
- ≥25 non-residents served ≥ 60 days/year
There are two types of noncommunity systems: Nontransient Noncommunity Water Systems and Transient Noncommunity Water Systems.
Nontransient Noncommunity Water System (NTNCWS) – A public water system that serves the same ≥ 25 persons ≥ 6 months/year, but not year-round. For example, a school with its own water supply is considered a nontransient noncommunity system.
Notice of Violation (NOV) – Issued to a public water system in violation. Invites the system to attend a settlement conference to discuss solutions. After receiving the Notice of Violation, the violator has a 60-day settlement period to enter into an Agreed Order with IDEM.
NOV – Notice of Violation
NPDES – National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPDWR – National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
NSDWR – National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations
NTNCWS – Nontransient Noncommunity Water System
NTTAA – National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995
NTU – Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
Numerical models – A model of ground water flow in which the aquifer is described by numerical equations, with specified values for boundary conditions, that are solved on a digital computer.
O & M – operations and maintenance.
ODMS – Operations Data Management System
OE – Office of Enforcement
Office of Enforcement (OE) – If initial investigation does not resolve a violation, then IDEM’s Office of Enforcement issues a Notice of Violation (NOV) to the public water system inviting them to attend a settlement conference to discuss solutions.
Office of Environmental Adjudication – If a violator appeals an IDEM Commissioner’s Order, then this department reviews the case prior to a hearing.
Office of Utility Consumer Counselor (OUCC) – The Indiana Office of Utility Consumer Counselor (OUCC) represents the interests of residential, commercial, and industrial utility customers in all cases before the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC). They also participate in cases before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the courts. Their attorneys and technical experts are involved in water, sewer, electric, natural gas, and telecommunications matters.
The OUCC and the IURC are separate state government agencies, with the IURC designated under Indiana law to make decisions in cases involving regulated public utilities and the OUCC serving as the consumers’ legal and technical representative. Simply put, the OUCC represents the public and the IURC is the “court”.
Office of Water Quality – The section of IDEM responsible for:
- Assessing the quality of surface and ground water.
- Issuing permits for construction of sewer lines and wastewater treatment facilities.
- Operating the federal wastewater discharge permit program, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), for municipal, semi-public, and private entities.
- Managing the federal storm water discharge permit program.
- Conducting compliance activities for wastewater dischargers.
- Regulating wetlands under the Clean Water Act.
- Implementing the federal Safe Drinking Water Act in Indiana – Working with community and noncommunity water supply systems – Working with ground water systems for wellhead protection – Certifying drinking water and wastewater facility operators – Investigating complaints dealing with private wells.
- Working with Indiana’s independent Water Pollution Control Board on water quality and safe drinking water rulemaking.
OIT – Operator in Training
OMB – Office of Management and Budget
One Call Notification Center – An entity that administers a system through which a person can notify owners/operators of lines or facilities of proposed excavations. Call 811.
Operator Certification – U.S. EPA finalized minimum national guidance for operator certification in February 1999, with additional requirements proposed in July 2000. Prior to the development of national guidelines, certification of drinking water system operators had been required only at the state level, with standards varying widely from state to state and many programs exempting small water systems. The recent national standards apply to all community water systems and nontransient, noncommunity water systems, regardless of system size.
Operator In Responsible Charge – A person designated by the owner or governing body of a water treatment plant or water distribution system to be the certified operator who has complete responsibility for the proper operation of a water treatment plant or water distribution system and makes decisions regarding the daily operational activities of a public water system treatment plant or distribution system that will directly impact the quality or quantity of drinking water from community public water supply systems and nontransient noncommunity public water supply systems.
Orthophoto – An aerial photograph of a site which has been differentially rectified to correct the distortion caused by the terrain and attitude (tip, tilt, and yaw) of the camera. A multicolored, distortion-free, photographic image.
Osmosis – Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane
OUCC – Office of Utility Consumer Counselor
Outlet structure – Controls the release of stored water.
Outwash – Sand and gravel deposited by melt water streams in front of the end moraine or the margin of an active glacier.
OWQ – Office of Water Quality
Parts-per-million (ppm) – Is a measure of concentration of a dissolved material in terms of a mass ratio (milligrams per kilogram, mg/kg). One part of a contaminant is present for each million parts of water. For water analysis, parts per million often is presented as a mass per unit volume (milligrams per liter, mg/l). There are one million milligrams of water in one liter.
Pathogen – An agent that causes disease, especially a living microorganism such as a bacterium.
PC – Personal Computer
PCBs – Polychlorinated biphenyls
Pentachlorophenol – Organic contaminant from wood preserving factories discharge. Can cause damage to liver and kidneys, have adverse affects on the reproductive system, and an increased risk of cancer.
Perchlorate – Perchlorate is both a naturally occurring chemical and a man-made chemical. It is the primary ingredient of solid rocket fuel. Perchlorate is an oxidizer and can cause death if the chemical is ingested in its regular formulation. It can cause burning and itching of the skin if you come into direct contact.
Perennial stream – Continuously flowing streams that are supplied both by surface runoff and springs, and by ground water seepage.
Permeability – A synonym for hydraulic conductivity.
pH – Potential of Hydrogen – Measures the activity of hydrogen ions. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity. The pH scale usually ranges from 0 to 14.
Photon emitters and beta particles – A radionuclide from the decay of natural and manmade deposits. Can cause an increased risk of cancer.
Picloram – Organic contaminant from herbicide runoff. Can cause damage to liver and kidneys.
Piezometer – A non-pumping well, generally of small diameter, that is used to measure the elevation of the water table or potentiometric surface. A piezometer generally has a short well screen through which water can enter.
Pitot Gauge – Measures pressure of flowing water.
Plat – A map or representation on paper of a piece of land subdivided into lots, with streets, alleys, etc., usually drawn to scale.
PLC – Programmable Logic Controller
PM – Preventive Maintenance
PNR – Public Notification Rule
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – Organic contaminant from landfill runoff and discharge of waste chemicals. Can cause skin changes, thymus gland problems, immune deficiencies, reproductive difficulties, nervous system problems, and an increased risk of cancer.
POTW – Publicly Owned Treatment Works
ppm – Parts Per Million
Pressure Vacuum Breaker (PVB) – A type of backflow prevention device. A device or assembly containing an independently operating internal loaded check valve and an independently operating loaded air inlet valve located on the downstream side of the check valve for relieving a vacuum or partial vacuum in a pipeline.
Pressure Vessels – Certain types of pressurized water tanks, water softeners and other specialized water treatment equipment may be classified as pressure vessels by the Indiana Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Generally speaking, pressure vessels are regulated if they are located in an area intended for public assembly for civic, educational, worship, correctional, entertainment and other similar purposes. If you have questions concerning pressure vessels, you should contact the DHS Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Division at 317-232-1921.
Primacy – Primary enforcement authority granted by U.S. EPA to states that meet certain requirements, including setting regulations that are at least as stringent as U.S. EPA’s. Indiana has been granted primacy.
Privately-owned water system – A privately-owned water system is a public water system owned by one or more private investors (individuals, partnerships, corporations, or other qualified entity), with the equity provided by investors or shareholders.
Production meter – Meters on wells for water leaving the plant or pumping station.
Propeller meter – These meters are used to measure water from wells and water plants. They are used where there are no low or intermediate flows where the pumps are either on or off. They are typically available in sizes from 2” through 72”.
Protozoan – Any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.
psi – Pounds per square inch
Public Notification – The process used by water systems to notify their customers, guests, and employees when the water system has violated a drinking water regulation.
Public Water System (PWS) – A Public Water System is a public water supply for the provision to the public of water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances, if such system has at least fifteen (15) service connections or regularly serves an average of at least twenty-five (25) individuals daily at least sixty (60) days out of the year. The term includes any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under control of the operator of such system, and used primarily in connection with such system and any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control that are used primarily in connection with such system.
Public Water System Identification (PWSID) Number – The unique number issued by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management to identify public water supplies.
PVB – Pressure Vacuum Breaker
PWS – Public Water System
PWSID Number – Public Water System Identification Number
Radon – Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, chemically inert, and radioactive gas. It forms naturally from the radioactive decay of uranium and is most commonly found in soils and ground waters. The primary risk of exposure is lung cancer from radon entering indoor air from soil under homes. Tap water is a smaller source of radon in air. Breathing radon released to air from household water uses also increases the risk of lung cancer, and consumption of drinking water containing radon presents a smaller risk of internal organ cancers, primarily stomach cancer.
Radon Rule – The Radon Rule was developed to reduce public radon exposure and applies to all community water systems that use ground water or mixed ground and surface water. The regulation does not apply to nontransient noncommunity public water supplies or to transient public water supplies. The Radon Rule was proposed in November 1999 and is expected to become final in 2004.
Rate – Monies collected for water provided – Every water utility must receive sufficient total revenue to ensure proper operations and maintenance, development and perpetuation of the system, and the preservation of the utility’s financial integrity.
Rate structure – Means of establishing charges for water usage. Different types of rates that could be used are: Lifeline Rates and Low Income Discounts, Inverted Block Rate, Declining Block Rate, Uniform Volume Rate, Economic Development Rate, Off-Peak Rate, Seasonal Rate, Negotiated Contractual Rate, Marginal-Cost Pricing Rate, Indexing or Indexed Rate, Rate Schedule by Customer Class.
RCM – Reliability-Centered Maintenance
RCRA – Resources Conservative and Recovery Act
Recharge – The processes involved in the addition of water to the zone of saturation.
Reduced Pressure Principal (RP) – Backflow prevention control – Backpressure and Backsiphonage
Reduced pressure principle backflow preventer – A device composed of two tightly closing shut-off valves surrounding two independently acting pressure reducing check valves that, in turn, surround an automatic pressure differential relief valve, and four test cocks, one upstream of the five valves and one between each of the four check and shut-off valves. The check valves effectively divide the structure into three chambers; pressure is reduced in each downstream chamber allowing the pressure differential relief valve to vent the center chamber to atmosphere should either or both check valves malfunction.
Reservoir – A basin designed to store water during periods in which the stream flow is greater than the demand and to deliver water during periods when the reverse condition occurs.
Retail water meter – Meters to monitor large customer water usage.
Reverse Osmosis – A method of producing pure water by forcing saline or impure water through a semipermeable membrane across which salts or impurities cannot pass.
RF – Radio Frequency
RFA – Regulatory Flexibility Act
RFID – Radio-Frequency Identification
RIA – Regulatory Impact Analysis
RISC – Risk Integrated System of Closure
Riparian Water Right – The legal right held by an owner of land contiguous to or bordering on a natural stream or lake, to take water from the source for use on the contiguous land.
Risk Integrated System of Closure – IDEM provided guidance for risk-based site investigation and closure.
RO – Reverse Osmosis
ROI – Return on Investment
RP – Reduced Pressure Principal
RTU – Remote Terminal Unit
Rural Utilities Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Program – Federal funds program available to states for water system infrastructure improvements for regulatory compliance.
SaaS – Software- as-a- service
SAB – Science Advisory Board
SBREFA – Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act
SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SDC – System Development Charge
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) – This law established national drinking water standards that were to be administered and enforced by State agencies. The SDWA was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nation’s public drinking water supply. This legislation:
- Authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish safe standards of purity
- Requires owners and operators of public water systems to comply with primary (health-related) standards
- EPA may allow any state to administer and enforce drinking water regulations if:
- State regulations are at least as stringent as federal regulations, and….
- State has applied for and received “Primacy” from EPA for each regulation
The law was amended in 1986 and 1996 and requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources. The 1996 amendments greatly enhanced the existing law by recognizing source water protection, operator training, funding for water system improvements, and public right-to-know as important components of safe drinking water. The SDWA applies to every public water system in the United States.
Sanitary Survey – On-site IDEM review to inspect the water source, facilities, equipment, wellhead protection information, operation, maintenance, monitoring compliance and other important aspects of a public water system.
SBA – Indiana State Board of Accounts
SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SDWA – Safe Drinking Water Act
SDWIS – Safe Drinking Water Information System
Secondary source of supply – Any well, spring, cistern, lake, stream, or other water source, intake structure, pumps, piping, treatment units, tanks, and appurtenances used, either continually or intermittently, to supply water other than from the public water supply to the customer, including tanks used to store water to be used only for firefighting, even though the water contained therein is supplied from the public water supply.
SEFA – Small Entity Flexibility Analysis
SEPs – Supplemental Environmental Projects
sft – square feet
Shock chlorination – The addition of chlorine for disinfecting a water supply system including the well, and all distribution pipelines. Shock chlorination is recommended when coliform bacteria are detected, or after system repairs. Treated water, with a concentration of at least 200 ppm, is pumped throughout the distribution system and allowed to set for at least 24 hours before flushing with untreated water.
Shoring equipment – Equipment installed in trenches to prevent the collapse of the trench.
Significant Water Withdrawal Facility – Any groundwater supply with a withdrawal capacity of more than 100,000 gallons per day. This supply must be registered with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
SIMPLE – Sustainable Infrastructure Management Program Learning Environment
Slug test – An aquifer test made either by pouring a small instantaneous charge of water into a well or by withdrawing a slug of water from the well.
SMART – Specific Measureable Achievable Relevant and Time Based
SMF – Standard Monitoring Framework
SOCs – Synthetic Organic Compounds
Solutes – Substances dissolved in groundwater, including contaminants, that move with the flow of groundwater.
Sorting – The process by which sedimentary particles of similar size being naturally separated from other size particles by running water or other natural agent.
Specific capacity – Expresses the productivity of a well. Specific capacity is obtained by dividing the well discharge rate by the well drawdown while pumping. It is calculated by dividing the production of the well in gallons per minute by the feet of drawdown between the static water level and the pumping water level. Water levels need to stabilize before measurements are made. The gallons per minute should be the normal production rate of the well and pumping equipment.
SRF – State Revolving Fund
SSO – Sanitary Sewer Overflow
Stage 1 – Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule (Stage 1 DBPR) – The purpose of this rule is to reduce public exposure to three chemical disinfectants (chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide) and many disinfection by-products (total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorite, and bromate).
Stage 2 – Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule (Stage 2 DBPR) – The rule builds upon the Stage I DBPR to further reduce public exposure to disinfection by-products. Because disinfection by-product concentrations can increase with increase time (i.e., increasing water age), the U.S. EPA is emphasizing compliance monitoring locations that reflect parts of the distribution system with older water. Compliance monitoring for the Stage 2 DBPR will be preceded by an initial distribution system evaluation to select site-specific optimal sample points for capturing peaks. The requirements for Stage 2 DBPR will apply to all community water systems and nontransient noncommunity water systems that add a disinfectant other than UV or deliver water that has been disinfected. This proposed rule is anticipated to be published in 2004. Compliance dates are anticipated between 2008 and 2010.
Standard Monitoring Framework – Schedule of required tests a system must perform and the frequency of those tests. This is provided to the system by IDEM.
State Revolving Fund (SRF) – The Wastewater SRF (WWSRF) and the Drinking Water SRF (DWSRF) are low-interest loan programs created to assist Indiana communities with their wastewater and drinking water infrastructure improvement needs.
Static water level – The water level in a well located in an unconfined aquifer when the pump is not operating. The static water level is the surface of the water-bearing formation and typically is synonymous with the water table.
Step test – Pumping a well at increased rates to gauge the effect on the aquifer prior to a full-scale pump test.
Storativity or coefficient of storage – The volume of water an aquifer releases from or takes into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in head. It is equal to the product of specific storage and aquifer thickness. In an unconfined aquifer, the storativity is equivalent to the specific yield.
Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) – An engineering process for accurately identifying the quality of underground utility information needed for excavation plans and for acquiring and managing that level of information during the development of a project.
SUE – Subsurface Utility Engineering
Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs) – Environmental improvement projects that violators can perform to further offset penalties.
Supplier of water – Any person who owns or operates a public water supply.
SWAP – Source Water Assessment Program
SWPP – Source Water Protection Plan
SWTR – Surface Water Treatment Rule
Synthetic Organic Compounds (SOCs) – Pesticides and herbicides.
Technical Capacity – The physical and operational ability of a water system to meet the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requirements – Adequacy of source water, Adequacy of infrastructure, Technical knowledge and implementation (certified operators)
Test Holes – Exposure of a facility by safe excavation practices used to ascertain the precise horizontal and vertical position of underground lines or facilities.
TCR – Total Coliform Rule
TNCWS – Transient Noncommunity Water System
Tolerance Zone – The space in which a line or facility is located, and in which special care is to be taken.
Toluene – Organic contaminant from petroleum factories discharge. Can cause damage to kidneys, liver, nervous system, and circulatory system.
Total Coliform (including fecal coliform and E. coli) – Coliforms are naturally present in the environment. Fecal Coliforms and E. coli come from human and animal fecal waste. Total Coliform are used as in indicator that other potential harmful bacteria may be present.
Transient Noncommunity Water System – Serves different ³ 25 persons ³ 60 days/year. Serves the public, but not the same individuals for more than six months. For example, a rest area or campground may be considered a transient noncommunity water system.
Transmissivity – The capacity of an aquifer to transmit water. It is dependent on the water-transmitting characteristics of the saturated formation (hydraulic conductivity) and the saturated thickness. For example, sand and gravel formations typically have greater hydraulic conductivities than sandstone formations. The sand and gravel will have a greater transmissivity if both formations are the same thickness.
Treated Water – Water treated in a manner that it is suitable for human consumption or for another designated use.
Treatment Technique – A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
Trihalomethanes (TTHM) – A byproduct of drinking water disinfection. Can cause liver, kidney, or central nervous system problems, as well as increase the risk of cancer.
TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act
TTHM – Trihalomethanes
Turbidity – A measure of the cloudiness of water or the number of light reflecting particles in water. It is used to indicate water quality and filtration effectiveness. Higher turbidity levels are often associated with higher levels of disease-causing microorganisms such as viruses, parasites, and some bacteria. These microorganisms can come from soil runoff. They can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches. Current standard is 0.5, to soon go to 0.3.
Turbine meters – These meters are used to measure intermediate and high flows like commercial user with high volumes of water, or to measure the water leaving the water plant. They are typically available in sizes from 2” through 20”.
UIC – Underground Injection Control
Ultra Violet – A method of disinfection.
UMRA – Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
Unconfined aquifer (water table aquifer) – An aquifer that is not confined under pressure beneath a relatively impermeable layer. The saturated formation in which the upper surface fluctuates with addition or subtraction of water. The upper surface of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table. Water, contained in an unconfined aquifer, is free to move laterally in response to differences in the water table elevations.
Underground Injection Control (UIC) – Program to control the injection of wastes into ground water.
Unidirectional flushing – A method of water main flushing wherein valves are closed to create artificial dead ends, thereby forcing water to flow from only one direction.
Uniformity coefficient – The ratio of the grain size that is sixty percent (60%) finer by weight to the grain size that is ten percent (10%) finer by weight on the grain-size distribution curve. It is a measure of how well or poorly sorted the sediment is.
URI – Utility Resilience Index
US – United States
US BLS – US Bureau of Labor Statistics
USDA – United States Department of Agriculture
US DOL – US Department of Labor
US EPA (or EPA) – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA or USEPA or EPA) – Indiana is part of U.S. EPA Region 5, which also includes Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
USGS – United States Geological Survey
UST – Underground Storage Tank
UV – Ultra Violet
VA – Vulnerability Assessment
Valley train deposit – A long, narrow body of outwash, deposited by melt water streams far beyond the terminal moraine of the margin of an active glacier and confined within the walls of a valley below the glacier. It may or may not emerge from the mouth of the valley to join an outwash plain.
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) – A variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a system for controlling the rotational speed of an alternating current (AC) electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor. A variable frequency drive is a specific type of adjustable-speed drive. Variable-frequency drives are also known as adjustable-frequency drives (AFD), variable-speed drives (VSD), AC drives or inverter drives. VFDs accomplish part load control by varying electric motor speed, significantly reducing energy waste.
VFD – Variable Frequency Drive
Viruses (enteric) – Microorganisms found in human and animal fecal waste. Can cause gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).
VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) – Industrial solvents
Vulnerability Assessment – Vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying and quantifying vulnerabilities in a system.
Voluntary Conservation – Compliance with a local unit of government’s request to reduce water use.
WARN – Water and Wastewater Agency Response Network
Water Environment Federation (WEF) – Founded in 1928, the Water Environment Federation is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work toward the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of the global water environment.
Water Management Strategy – A plan adopted by a local unit of government together with its water resource manager or utility to reduce the demand upon both raw water supply and treated or finished water.
Water Rationing – Compliance with a local unit of government’s imposition of restrictions that will reduce demand for water to a maximum allowable quantity within a finite time interval (e.g.; gallons per person per day).
Water RF – Water Research Foundation
Water Table – The upper level of a saturated formation where the water is at atmospheric pressure. The water table is the upper surface of an unconfined aquifer.
Water Treatment 1 (WT1) – Class WT1 includes water systems that meet the following:
- Serve a population less than or equal to five hundred (500) people
- Acquire water from one (1) of the following:
- Ground water
- Have one (1) of the following:
- Ion exchange softening process for cation removal
- Inline filtration device with no chemical treatment
Water Treatment 2 (WT2) – Class WT2 includes systems with no population limitations that meet the following:
- Acquire water from one (1) of the following:
- Ground water
- Utilize chemical feed to achieve one (1) of the following:
- Fluoride standardization, or
- Water stabilization
Water Treatment 3 (WT3) – Class WT3 includes systems that meet the following:
- Acquire water from one (1) of the following:
- Ground water
- Utilize chemical feed
- Have one (1) of the following:
- Pressure or gravity filtration
- Ion exchange processes if the population served is greater than five hundred one (501)
- Lime soda
- Reverse osmosis
Water Treatment 4 (WT4) – Class WT4 includes systems that meet the following:
- Serve a population less than or equal to ten thousand (10,000) people
- Acquire water from one (1) of the following:
- Surface water
- Ground water under the direct influence of surface water
Water Treatment 5 (WT5) – Class WT5 includes systems that meet the following:
- Serve a population greater than ten thousand one (10,001) people
- Acquire water from one (1) of the following:
- Surface water
- Ground water under the direct influence of surface water
Water Treatment 6 (WT6) – Class WT6 includes systems that utilize newly emerging treatment technology not commonly in use for drinking water treatment in Indiana, as determined by the Commissioner of IDEM.
WEF – Water Environment Federation
Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) – The land surface and subsurface area surrounding a wellfield through which water, or contaminants, can enter the ground and move toward the wellfield within a specified time period.
Wellhead Protection Plan – A written plan to protect wellhead from reasonably foreseeable potential sources of contaminants.
WERF – Water Environmental Research Foundation
WHO – World Health Organization
WHPA – Wellhead Protection Area
WIFA – Water Infrastructure Financing Authority
Wilson’s Disease – A disease caused by the body’s inability to metabolize Copper.
WQS – Water Quality Standards
WT1 – Water Treatment 1
WT2 – Water Treatment 2
WT3 – Water Treatment 3
WT4 – Water Treatment 4
WT5 – Water Treatment 5
WT6 – Water Treatment 6
WUERM – Water Utility Emergency Response Manager
Zone of influence – The area overlaying an aquifer within which water levels will change as a result of a pumping well.
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